The Raw Focus video series is designed to cover the high yield, key concepts around which many examination questions are structured. If you can reproduce these core ideas yourself then the rest of an answer will issue forth.

The videos will complement content covered in the podcast series and are also posted in the relevant audio section.

We are working to complete the key concept syllabus listed below. If there are any specific topics that you would like to see covered please get in touch via twitter, or message us at, and we will produce a personalised video. 


1. Pressure

1.1 Pressure as potential energy

1.2 Units, absolute & gauge pressure

1.3 Hydrostatic pressure equation

2. The Gas Laws

2.1 Ideal, Boyle's, Charles', Guy-Lussac's

2.2 Henry's, Dalton's, Avogadro's

3. Humidification

3.1 Latent heat & specific heat

3.2 Vapour Vs gas

3.3 Saturated vapour pressure

3.4 Absolute humidity & heat loss

3.5 Relative/specific humidity & dew point

4. Gas Flow

4.1 Laminar flow

4.2 Poiseuille's Law

4.3 Viscosity, shear stress & Newtonian fluids

4.4 Turbulent flow

4.5 Reynold's number & critical velocity

4.6 Bernoulli principle & Venturi/Coanda effects

5. Oxygen Cascade

1.1 Oxygen Cascade

1.2 Gas exchange as serial conductances

6. Alveolar Gas Equation

6.1 Short form AGE

6.2 Refined AGE

7. The Ventilation Equation

7.1 Equation & determinants of PaCO2

8. Airways Resistance

8.1 Airway generation & resistance

8.2 Equal pressure point

9. Elastance & Compliance

9.1 Lung compliance

9.2 Chest wall compliance

9.3 Total respiratory system compliance

9.4 Elastic recoil & La Place's Law

10. Work of Breathing

10.1 Calculation & determinants

10.2 Optimal work of breathing

11. Lung Volumes

11.1 Spirometry

11.2 Body plethysmography

11.3 Functional residual capacity

11.4 Closing capacity

11.5 Hysteresis

11.6 Time constants

14.7 Flow-Volume Loop

12. Diffusion

12.1 Graham's law

12.2 Fick's law

12.3 Diffusion & perfusion limitation

13. Dead Space

13.1 Fowler's method

13.2 Bohr equation & Enghoff modification

14. Shunt

14.1 Shunt equation derivation

14.2 Iso-shunt diagram

15. V/Q Ratios

15.1 Definition & distributions

15.2 West's zones

15.3 Oxygen-carbon dioxide diagram

16. Minute Ventilation & Gas Partial Pressures

16.1 MV & oxygen

16.2 MV & carbon dioxide

17. Pulmonary Vascular Resistance

17.1 Calculation & determinants

17.2 PVR & lung volume

18. Oxyhaemoglobin Dissociation Curve

18.1 OHDC

18.2 Bohr & Haldane effects

18.3 Double Bohr effect

18.4 Hamburger shift

19. Carbon Dioxide Carriage

19.1 Carbon dioxide content curve

19.2 Determinants of mixed venous CO2


Cardiac Action Potentials

Wigger's Diagram

Pascal's Law

Bernoulli Principle

Flow, Pressure, Resistance




Ventricular PV Loops

Guyton Curves

Valsalva Manoeuvre

Oxygen Flux Equation

Coronary Perfusion

The Right Ventricle


Starling Forces



Functional groups 

Compartment models


Time constant


Volume of distribution



Zero order kinetics

Context sensitive half-time

Steady state, loading dose & infusion rate

Placental drug transfer

Occupancy-response coupling

Spare receptor concept

Law of mass action, association/dissociation constants

Affinity, efficacy & potency

Dose response curves

Quantal dose response curves

Agonists (full, partial, inverse)


Summation, potentiation, synergism