RESPIRATORY


Textbooks

Comroe JH: Physiology of Respiration, 2d ed. Chicago, Year Book, 1974, pp 158-167; pp 94-141

Engel LA Paiva M: Gas Mixing and Distribution in the Lung, New York, Marrcel Dekker, 1985.

Nunn JF: Applied Respiratory Physiology, 3d ed. London, Butterworths, 1987, pp 23-71, 100-109, 184-206.

Rhoades RA, Tanner GA. Medical Physiology, Boston, Little, Brown & Co. 1995, pp 386-400.

Levitzky MG: Pulmonary Physiology, 4th ed. New York, McGraw-Hill, 1995, pp 55-141.

Slonim NB Hamilton LH: Respiratory Physiology, 5th ed. St. Louis, Mosby, 1987, pp 48-64.

Murray JF: The Normal Lung, 2d ed. Philadelphia, Saunders, 1986, pp 83-138; pp 158-197.

Nunn JF: Applied Respiratory Physiology, 3d ed. London, Butterworths, 1987, pp 23-71, 100-109, 143-146.

Cruickshank S. Mathematics and Statistics in Anaesthesia. Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1998

Hlastala MP and Berger AJ. Physiology of Respiration. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1996.

Appadu BL, Hanning CD: Respiratory physiology. In: Pinnock C, Lin T, Smith T, eds. Fundamentals of Anaesthesia, 2nd Edn. London: Greenwich Medical, 2003; 397–424

Davies A, Moores C. The Respiratory System, 1st Edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2003

Weibel ER. The Pathway for Oxygen. Structure and Function in the Mammalian Respiratory System. 1984; Harvard Univ Press, Cambridge.

Rhoades RA, Tanner GA. Medical Physiology, Boston, Little, Brown & Co. 1995, pp 386-400.

Forster, R.E., A.B. DuBois, W.A. Briscoe and A.B. Fisher. The Lung: Physiological Basis of Pulmonary Function Tests, 3rd ed. Chicago, Year Book Medical Publishers, 1986, pp 25-64, 190-222.

Kendall MG, Moran PAP. Geometrical Probability. London: Charles Griffin and Co., Ltd.; 1963.

Weibel ER. The Pathway for Oxygen: Structure and Function in the Mammalian Respiratory System. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1984, pp. 211-230.


Journal Articles

Anthonisen NR Fleetham JA: Ventilation: Total, alveolar, and dead space, in Farhi LE Tenney SM (eds): Gas Exchange, Handbook of Physiology, sec 3: The Respiratory System. Bethesda, Md., American Physiological Society, 1987, Vol. 4, pp 113-129.

Kellogg RH: Laws of physics pertaining to gas exchange, in Farhi LE, Tenney SM (eds) Gas Exchange, Handbook of Physiology, Section 3: The Respiratory System. Bethesda, MD., American Physiological Society, Vol 4, 1987, pp 13-31.

Agostoni E: Mechanics of the pleural space, Physiol Rev. 52: 57-128, 1972.

G. Kim Prisk, Susan R. Hopkins; Pulmonary Gas Exchange ; August 2013

Bangham AD: Lung surfactant: How it does and does not work, Lung 165: 17-25, 1987.

Clements JA, Tierney DF: Alveolar instability associated with altered surface tension, in Fenn WO, Rahn H (eds): Handbook of Physiology, sec 3: Respiration. Washington, American Physiological Society, 1965, vol 2, pp 1567-1568.

Goerke J Clements JA: Alveolar surface tension and lung surfactant, in Macklem PT, Mead J (eds): Mechanics of Breathing, part 1, Handbook of Physiology, sec 3: The Respiratory System. Bethesda, Md., American Physiological Society, 1986, vol 3, pp 247-261.

Hyatt RE: Static behavior of the respiratory system, in Macklem PT, Mead J (eds): Mechanics of Breathing, part 1, Handbook of Physiology, sec 3: The Respiratory System. Bethesda, Maryland, American Physiological Society, 1986, vol 3, pp 113-130.

Otis AB: The work of breathing, in Fenn WO, Rahn H (eds): Handbook of Physiology, sec 3: Respiration. Washington, American Physiological Society, 1964, vol 1, pp 463-475.

Roussos C Macklem PT: The respiratory muscles. N Engl J Med 307: 786-797, 1982.

Weibel ER: Functional morphology of lung parenchyma, in Macklem PT, Mead J (eds): Mechanics of Breathing, part 1, Handbook of Physiology, sec 3: The Respiratory System. Bethesda, Md., American Physiological Society, 1986, vol 3, pp 89-111.

West J, Dollery C, Naimark A (1964). "Distribution of blood flow in isolated lung; relation to vascular and alveolar pressures". J Appl Physiol 19: 713–24.

Weibel ER, Gomez DM. Architecture of the human lung. Science. 1962;137:577–85.

Ochs M, Nyengaard JR, Jung A, Knudsen L, Voigt M, Wahlers T, et al. The number of alveoli in the human lung. Am J Respir Crit Care Med. 2004;169:120–4.

Roughton FJW, Forster RE. Relative importance of diffusion and chemical reaction rates in determining rate of exchange of gases in the human lung, with special reference to true diffusing capacity of pulmonary membrane and volume of blood in the lung capillaries. J Appl Physiol. 1957;11:290–302.

Miles RE, Davy PJ. Precise and general conditions for the validity of a comprehensive set of stereological fundamental formulae. J Microsc. 1976;107:211–26.

Cruz-Orive L M, Weibel ER. Recent stereological methods for cell biology: a brief survey. Am J Physiol. 1990;258:L148–L156.

Fenn WO, Rahn H, and Otis AB. A theoretical study of the composition of the alveolar air at altitude. Am J Physiol 146: 637653, 1946.

Hlastala MP and Berger AJ. Physiology of Respiration. New York: Oxford Univ. Press, 1996.

Otis AB. My initiation into respiratory physiology. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 161: 345–346, 2000.

Otis AB and Rahn H. Development of concepts in Rochester, New York, in the 1940s. In: Pulmonary Gas Exchange, edited by West JB. New York: Academic, 1980, vol. 1, chapt. 2, p. 33–66.

Otis AB, Rahn H, and Fenn WO. Venous pressure changes associated with positive intrapulmonary pressures; their relationship to the distensibility of the lung. Am J Physiol 146: 307–317, 1946.

Pappenheimer J. Hermann Rahn. Biogr Mem Natl Acad Sci 69: 242–267, 1996.

Pappenheimer JR. Standardization of definitions and symbols in respiratory physiology. Fed Proc 9: 602–605, 1950

Rahn H and Fenn WO. Graphical Analysis of the Respiratory Gas Exchange: the O2-CO2 Diagram. Washington, DC: Am. Physiol. Soc., 1955.

West JB. Understanding pulmonary gas exchange: ventilation-perfusion relationships. J Appl Physiol 97: 1603–1604, 2004.

Altemeier WA, McKinney S, Glenny RW. Fractal nature of regional ventilation distribution. J Appl Physiol 2000; 88: 1551–7

Appadu BL, Hanning CD: Respiratory physiology. In: Pinnock C, Lin T, Smith T, eds. Fundamentals of Anaesthesia, 2nd Edn. London: Greenwich Medical, 2003; 397–424

Bake B, Wood L, Murphy B, Macklem PT, Milic-Emili J. Effect of inspiratory flow rate on regional distribution of inspired gas. J Appl Physiol 1974; 37: 8–17

Ball WCj, Stewart PB, Newsham LGS, Bates DV. Regional pulmonary function studied with xenon133. J Clin Invest 1962; 41: 519–31

Beck KC, Rehder K. Differences in regional vascular conductances in isolated dog lungs. J Appl Physiol 1986; 61: 530–8

Chang H, Lai-Fook SJ, Domino KB, et al. Spatial distribution of ventilation and perfusion in anesthetized dogs in lateral postures. J Appl Physiol 2002; 92: 745–62

Davies A, Moores C. The Respiratory System, 1st Edn. Edinburgh: Churchill Livingstone, 2003

Dollery CT, Gillam PM. Distribution of blood and gas within the lungs measured by scanning after administration of 133Xe. Thorax 1963; 18: 316–25

Gattinoni L, Chiumello D, Cressoni M, Valenza F. Pulmonary computed tomography and adult respiratory distress syndrome. Swiss Med Wkly 2005; 135: 169–74

Glenny RW. Spatial correlation of regional pulmonary perfusion. J Appl Physiol 1992; 72: 2378–86

West JB, Dollery CT. Distribution of blood flow and ventilation perfusion ratio in the lung, measured with radioactive carbon dioxide. J Appl Physiol 1960; 15: 405–10

Fenn, W. O., H. Rahn, and A. B. Otis. 1946. A theoretical study of the composition of the alveolar air at altitude. Am. J. Physiol. 146:637–653.

Riley, R. L. 1980. Development of the three-compartment model for dealing with uneven distribution. In J. B. West, editor. Pulmonary Gas Exchange, Vol. 1. Ventilation, Blood Flow, and Diffusion. Academic Press, New York. 67–85.

Riley, R. L., and A. Cournand. 1949. ‘Ideal’ alveolar air and the analysis of ventilation-perfusion relationships in the lungs. J. Appl. Physiol. 1: 825–847.

Riley, R. L., and A. Cournand. 1951. Analysis of factors affecting partial pressures of oxygen and carbon dioxide in gas and blood of lungs: theory. J. Appl. Physiol. 4:77–101.

Farhi, L. E., and T. Yokoyama. 1967. Effects of ventilation/perfusion inequality on elimination of inert gases. Respir. Physiol. 3:12–20.

Weibel ER, Knight BW. A morphometric study on the thickness of the pulmonary air-blood barrier. J Cell Biol. 1964;21: 367–84.

Gehr P, Bachofen M, Weibel ER. The normal human lung: ultrastructure and morphometric estimation of diffusion capacity. Respir Physiol. 1978;32:121–40.

Hsia CCW. Quantitative morphology of compensatory lung growth. Eur Respir Rev. 2006;15:148–56.

Aaronson PI, Robertson TP, Knock GA, Becker S, Lewis TH, Snetkov V, Ward JP. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction: mechanisms and controversies. J Physiol 570: 53-58, 2006.

Gao Y, Raj JU. Regulation of the pulmonary circulation in the fetus and newborn. Physiol Rev 90: 1291-1335, 2010.

West JB. Comparative physiology of the pulmonary circulation. Compr Physiol 1: 1525-1539, 2011.

Abman SH, Accurso FJ. Acute effects of partial compression of ductus arteriosus on fetal pulmonary circulation. Am J Physiol 257: H626-H634, 1989.

Rasanen J, Wood DC, Weiner S, Ludomirski A, Huhta JC. Role of the pulmonary circulation in the distribution of human fetal cardiac output during the second half of pregnancy. Circulation 94: 1068-1073, 1996.

Rudolph AM. Fetal and neonatal pulmonary circulation. Ann Rev Physiol 41: 383-395, 1979.

Fishman A. Pulmonary Circulation. Comp Physiol 93-165, 2011. 173.

Altemeier WA, McKinney S, Krueger M, Glenny RW. Effect of posture on regional gas exchange in pigs. J Appl Physiol 97: 2104-2111, 2004.

Warrell DA, Evans JW, Clarke RO, Kingaby GP, West JBC. Pattern of filling in the pulmonary capillary bed. J Appl Physiol 32: 346-356, 1972.

Fishman AP. Autonomic vasomotor tone in the pulmonary circulation. Anesthesiology 45: 1-2, 1976.

Amis TC, Jones HA, Hughes JM. Effect of posture on inter-regional distribution of pulmonary perfusion and VA/Q ratios in man. Resp Physiol 56: 169-182, 1984.

Gattinoni L, Pesenti A, Carlesso E. Body position changes redistribute lung computed-tomographic density in patients with acute respiratory failure: Impact and clinical fallout through the following 20 years. Inten Care Med 39: 1909-1915, 2013.

Asikainen TM, Ahmad A, Schneider BK,White CW. Effect of preterm birth on hypoxia-inducible factors and vascular endothelial growth factor in primate lungs. Pediatric Pulm 40: 538-546, 2005.

Bachler P, Pinochet N, Sotelo J, Crelier G, Irarrazaval P, Tejos C, Uribe SC. Assessment of normal flow patterns in the pulmonary circulation by using 4D magnetic resonance velocity mapping. Magn Reson Imaging 31: 178-188.

West JB, Dollery CT, Naimark A. Distribution of blood flow in isolated lung; relation to vascular and alveolar pressures. J Appl Physiol 19: 713-724, 1964.

Fung YC, Sobin SS. Elasticity of the pulmonary alveolar sheet. Circ Res 30: 451-469, 1972.

Richter T, Bellani G, Scott Harris R, Vidal Melo MF, Winkler T, Venegas JG, Musch GCP. Effect of prone position on regional shunt, aeration, and perfusion in experimental acute lung injury. Am J Resp Crit Care Med 172: 480-487, 2005.

Simmons D, Linde L, Miller J, O’Reilly R. Relation between lung volume and pulmonary vascular resistance. Circ res 9: 465-471, 1961.

Rajagopalan B, Friend JA, Stallard T, Lee GD. Blood flow in pulmonary veins: II. The influence of events transmitted from the right and left sides of the heart. Cardiovasc Res 13: 677-683, 1979.

Barer GR. The effect of catecholamine blocking and depleting agents on the changes in the pulmonary circulation caused by hypoxia and hypercapnia. J Physiol 186: 97P-99P, 1966.

Sylvester JT, Shimoda LA, Aaronson PI,Ward JP. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction. Physiol Rev 92: 367-520, 2012.

Barman SA, Ardell JL, Parker JC, Perry ML, Taylor AE. Pulmonary and systemic blood flow contributions to upper airways in canine lung. Am J Physiol 255: H1130-H1135, 1988.

Barman SA, Pauly JR, Isales CM. Canine pulmonary vasoreactivity to serotonin: Role of protein kinase C and tyrosine kinase. Am J Physiol 272: H740-H747, 1997.

Jameson AG. Diffusion of gases from alveolus to precapillary arteries. Science 139: 826-828, 1963.

Barnard JW, Wilson PS, Moore TM, Thompson WJ, Taylor AE. Effect of nitric oxide and cyclooxygenase products on vascular resistance in dog and rat lungs. J Appl Physiol 74: 2940-2948, 1993.

Adkison JB, Miller GT, Weber DS, Miyahara T, Ballard ST, Frost JR, Parker JC. Differential responses of pulmonary endothelial phenotypes to cyclical stretch. Microvasc Res 71: 175-184, 2006.

Jones AT, Hansell DM, Evans TWC. Pulmonary perfusion in supine and prone positions: An electron-beam computed tomography study. J Appl Physiol 90: 1342-1348, 2001.

Barnes PJ, Liu SF. Regulation of pulmonary vascular tone. Pharmacol Rev 47: 87-131, 1995.

Lloyd TC. Effect of alveolar hypoxia on pulmonary vascular resistance. J Appl Physiol 19: 1086-1094, 1964.

Palmer RM, Ferrige AG, Moncada S. Nitric oxide release accounts for the biological activity of endothelium-derived relaxing factor. Nature 327: 524-526, 1987.

Tan JZ, Kaley G, Gurtner GH. Nitric oxide and prostaglandins mediate vasodilation to 5,6-EET in rabbit lung. Adv Exp Med Biol 407: 561-566,1997.

Wang J, Weigand L, Foxson J, Shimoda LA, Sylvester JT. Ca2+ signaling in hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction: effects of myosin light chain and Rho kinase antagonists. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 293: L674-L685, 2007.

Malik AB, Mewmark JM. Adrenergic mechanisms and the pulmonary vascular response to respiratory acidosis. Respiration 33: 179-187, 1976.

Porcelli RJ, Bergofsky EH. Effect of pH on pulmonary pressor responses to humoral agents. J Appl Physiol 31: 679-685, 1971.

Kadowitz PJ, Hyman AL. Effect of sympathetic nerve stimulation on pulmonary vascular resistance in the dog. Circ Res 32: 221-227, 1973.

Fung YC, Sobin SS. Pulmonary alveolar blood flow. Circ Res 30: 470-490, 1972.

Lai-Fook SJ. A continuum mechanics analysis of pulmonary vascular interdependence in isolated dog lobes. J Appl Physiol 46: 419-429,1979.

Rajaram SS, Desai NK, Kalra A, Gajera M, Cavanaugh SK, Brampton W, Young D, Harvey S, Rowan K. Pulmonary artery catheters for adult patients in intensive care. Cochrane Database Syst Rev 2: Cd003408, 2013.

Baudouin SV, Messent M, Evans TW. Effect of Intralipid on hypoxic and angiotensin-II induced pulmonary vasoconstriction in the isolated rat lung. Crit Care Med 22: 1964-1968, 1994.

Starling EH. On the absorption of fluids from the connective tissue spaces. J Physiol 19: 312-326, 1896.

Bhattacharya J, Gropper MA, Shepard JM. Lung expansion and the perialveolar interstitial pressure gradient. J Appl Physiol 66: 2600-2605, 1989.

Bhattacharya J, Gropper MA, Staub NC. Interstitial fluid pressure gradient measured by micropuncture in excised dog lung. J Appl Physiol 56: 271-277, 1984.

Hu G, Place AT, Minshall RD. Regulation of endothelial permeability by Src kinase signaling: Vascular leakage versus transcellular transport of drugs and macromolecules. Chem Biol Interact 171: 177 189, 2008.

Kern DF, Malik AB. Microvascular albumin permeability in isolated perfused lung: Effects of EDTA. J Appl Physiol 58: 372-375, 1985.

Pappenheimer JR, Renkin EM, Borrero LM. Filtration, diffusion and molecular sieving through peripheral capillary membranes; a contribution to the pore theory of capillary permeability. Am J Physiol 167: 13-46,1951.

Parker RE, Roselli RJ, Brigham KL. Effects of prolonged elevated microvascular pressure on lung fluid balance in sheep. J Appl Physiol 58: 869-875, 1985.

Glucksberg MR,Bhattacharya J. Effect of vascular pressure on interstitial pressures in the isolated dog lung. J Appl Physiol 75: 268-272, 1993.

Parker RE, Roselli RJ, Harris TR, Brigham KL. Effects of graded increases in pulmonary vascular pressures on lung fluid balance in unanesthetized sheep. Circ Res 49: 1164-1172, 1981.

Vogel SM, Malik AB. Cytoskeletal dynamics and lung fluid balance. Compr Physiol 2: 449-478, 2012.

Tiruppathi C, Minshall RD, Paria BC, Vogel SM, Malik AB. Role of Ca2+ signaling in the regulation of endothelial permeability. Vascul Pharmacol 39: 173-185, 2002.

Kizub IV, Strielkov IV, Shaifta Y, Becker S, Prieto-Lloret J, Snetkov VA, Soloviev AI, Aaronson PI, Ward JP. Gap junctions support the sustained phase of hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction by facilitating calcium sensitization. Cardiovas Res 99: 404-411, 2013.

Stevens T. Functional and molecular heterogeneity of pulmonary endothelial cells. Proc Am Thorac Soc 8: 453-457, 2011.

Yang Y, Schmidt EPC. The endothelial glycocalyx: An important regulator of the pulmonary vascular barrier. Tissue Barriers 1: pii: 23494, 2013.

Parker JC, Townsley MIC. Physiological determinants of the pulmonary filtration coefficient. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 295: L235- L237, 2008.

Vandenbroucke E, Mehta D, Minshall R, Malik AB. Regulation of endothelial junctional permeability. Ann NY Acad Sci 1123: 134, 2008.

Yuan SY. New insights into eNOS signaling in microvascular permeability. Am J Physiol Heart Circ Physiol 291:H1029-1031, 2006.

Boitano S, Safdar Z, Welsh DG, Bhattacharya J, Koval M. Cell-cell interactions in regulating lung function. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 287: L455-L459, 2004.

Parker JC. Acute lung injury and pulmonary vascular permeability: Use of transgenic models. Compr Physiol 1: 835-882.

Parker JC, Stevens T, Randall J, Weber DS, King JA. Hydraulic conductance of pulmonary microvascular and macrovascular endothelial cell monolayers. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 291: L30-L37, 2006.

Ware LB, Matthay MA. Alveolar fluid clearance is impaired in the majority of patients with acute lung injury and the acute respiratory distress syndrome. Am J Respir Crit Care Med 163: 1376-1383, 2001.

Pitt Ford TR, Sachs JR, Grotberg JB, Glucksberg MR. Perialveolar interstitial resistance and compliance in isolated rat lung. J Appl Physiol 70: 2750-2756, 1991.

Cribbs SK, Martin GS. Fluid balance and colloid osmotic pressure in acute respiratory failure: Optimizing therapy. Expert Rev Respir Med 3: 651-662, 2009.

Martin GS, BernardGR. Airway and lung dysfunction in sepsis. Intensive Care Med 27(Suppl 1): S63-S79, 2001.

Guidot DM, Folkesson HG, Jain L, Sznajder JI, Pittet JF, Matthay MA. Integrating acute lung injury and regulation of alveolar fluid clearance. Am J Physiol Lung Cell Mol Physiol 291: L301-L306, 2006.